As Indonesian elections are approaching, here is a Twitter thread on Southeast Asian names. I have been thinking to do it for a while since many foreign media apply their own default standard of using "family names" (or what they wrongly think is family name) on second mention.
Family names don't carry as much importance in many Southeast Asian societies, unlike in Western countries, or East Asia. Some people have family names, some don't. Javanese, for example, may have 3-part names, all of which are given names.
In a number of Southeast Asian countries, people use their given name even in formal context/setting, ditto for second mention, while family names aren't used as much.
Thai names: eg ex-PM Yingluck Shinawatra. Shinawatra is her family name. But on second mention, it should be Yingluck or Ms Yingluck. Not Shinawatra or Ms Shinawatra. Her brother Thaksin Shinawatra, then Thaksin. Never Shinawatra.
Like Chinese names, Vietnamese names usually comprise a family name and a two-part given name (in that order). But unlike the Chinese, Vietnamese go with the second part of the given name for second mention. Eg Vietnamese President Nguyen Phu Trong, then Trong. (Never Nguyen).
Malay names comprise a given name, followed by a patronymic (the father's name). On second mention, it should be the given name. Eg Mahathir Mohamad, then Mahathir; Wan Azizah Wan Ismail, then Wan Azizah.
Indonesian names are more tricky because there are so many ethnic groups. Some have family names, some don't. But the general rule of thumb is use the first name, like Malay and Thai names.
Foreign media are generally good with Thai, Malay and Vietnamese names. But they are a mess in treating Indonesian names. I am not sure why because up to around 2000, they were generally consistent but it became a chaos afterwards.
For example, Prabowo Subianto, whose full name is Prabowo Subianto Djojohadikusumo -- 1 of the few Javanese who have family name (he doesn't use it though). Up to 2000, in foreign media, he was Prabowo on second mention. Now, it's Subianto, which is his middle name. 😬
Joko Widodo -- both are given names; calling him Widodo on second mention is 🤦🏽♀️🤦🏽♂️
Many Indonesian women' names consist of feminine given names. Eg Megawati Sukarnoputri and her daughter Puan Maharani. Calling them Sukarnoputri and Maharani is very awkward.
And even people from ethnic groups who have family names, like the Bataks, they are still called with their given name. For example, Luhut Pandjaitan, it's Luhut; Hotman Paris Hutapea, it's Hotman.
There are some exceptions in the first-name rule for Indonesian names. For example, names like Ahmad or Mohamad are never used on second mention. Eg. Mohammad Hatta, then Hatta. And if you call @sahaL_AS or @GunRomli Akhmad or Mohamad respectively, they won't turn their head 😅
There are other exceptions -- the Indonesian section of the Asian names style guide I made for @TIME and @nytimes editors & journalists was the longest 😂 (largely thanks to the country's multitude of ethnicities!). But that's a discussion for another day.
Great thread. Also, that lines up with our style guide advice for Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam etc which is good to know. The use (or non-use, or knowing when to use) Jokowi is a further complication that most papers seem to struggle with 🤦♀️ cc @mbachelard
We use Joko “Jokowi” Widodo in the world pages and then Joko at second mention (no honourifics in the world section), Mr Joko in the news pages (where Mr/Mrs/Ms are used) but in features we have the space to say Joko, “widely known as Jokowi”, and can use Jokowi.